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Accordingly, the Korean people have found it necessary to defend fiercely their identity as a separate culture.Tungusic tribes from the Altai mountain region in central Asia made the peninsula their home during the Neolithic period around 4000 several wall-town states throughout the peninsula were large enough to be recognized by China.South Korea's government is an emergent democracy, and Seoul—Korea's largest city—is its capital.An estimated 67 million people live on the Korean peninsula, with a population of approximately 43.9 million in South Korea and another 23.1 million residing in North Korea.
North Korea is run by a Communist government, with Pyongyang as its capital city.
By the mid-eighth century the Silla people began using woodblock printing to reproduce sutras and Confucian writings. Within 36 years the Koguryo kingdom took control and its leader, General Wang Kon, established the Koryo dynasty. During Koryo's 400-year reign, artistic, scientific, and literary achievements advanced further.
Improving upon earlier Chinese printing methods, Korea became the first country in the world to use movable cast metal type in 1234.
Mongolian forces invaded Koryo in 1231 and occupied the kingdom until 1368.
The Chinese Ming dynasty forced the Mongols back to the far north.